BICYCLING.

BICYCLING.

The sport of Bicycling is one that has come into rapid favor in this country since the advent of the English riders, who have accomplished a thousand miles a week; and the only drawback to its universal adoption is the first cost of the machines. When that is reduced, as it will be, to about fifty dollars, payable in installments like sewing machines, the bicycle will become a favorite with the whole American population as it is in England with the majority of middle class young men.

Even now the fever is spreading rapidly thanks chiefly to the efforts of Mr. Wentworth Rollins, the present king of bicyclists in America. He sells machines to people he can trust on installments and has a large stock of goods on hand which he sells below the usual prices to beginners.

The pioneers of bicycling in the United States were the Pope Manufacturing Company, who started factories and schools in the cities of Boston and San Francisco, where the fever started almost at the same time, but since that period bicycling has spread to most of the large cities, and has training schools in all.

There is but little information that can be given to an intending bicycler except to recommend him not to buy a machine till he has been at the school long enough to know the good and bad points of every bicycle in the market.

Prices of bicycles

The prices of bicycles range from $80 to $100, according to size of wheel; the smallest being 42 inches in diameter, the largest 60 inches. The best way to get enjoyment out of the sport is to form a club of congenial spirits who will ride together. A single bicyclist is apt to attract too much attention in country places, and would often be insulted, where two or three together would meet with a hearty welcome. Moreover, company is elevating to the spirits.

For the use of bicycle clubs we subjoin the model rules of the San Francisco club, which can hardly be excelled for completeness and care. They are printed on strips of cardboard, and carried by each member of a club for reference, till he is perfectly familiar with them.

BICYCLING RULES.

Section 1.—The time named for a club excursion is the exact time of the start, which will in all cases be punctually observed. Members are therefore urgently requested to be at the spot named at least ten minutes before, that they may arrange themselves in order for the start and receive the instructions of the leader as regards signals, and any other directions that may be necessary.

Sec. 2.—At the sound of “Fall in,” the members will arrange themselves side by side upon the right of the road, with bicycle facing inward, leaving a space of at least eight feet between each man. At the sound of “Mount,” the machines will be turned in the direction of the proposed run, and the company will mount, beginning at the front, each man before he starts, being careful to see that the rider immediately in front of him has safely reached the saddle, and proceeded at least two revolutions.

Sec. 3.—As a general rule the company should ride two abreast; but in towns and villages; in meeting and passing vehicles (unless the road is broad); in riding up and down hills, and where the road is bad and requires picking, single file should be taken, the right-hand man always quickening, and the left-hand man dropping in behind him.

Sec. 4.—When in single-file, an interval of at least four bicycle lengths should be kept between each rider, and in double-file, eight lengths between each pair. In approaching a hill, whether up or down, the leading files should quicken and the rear files slacken, so as to allow of the company extending out to double distance, and on reaching the level they should slacken and quicken respectively, until the original interval is attained.

Sec. 5.—Dismounting should always be commenced from the rear, each man passing the word forward as he reaches the ground.

Sec. 6.—It is undesirable for a company to ride down a long hill with a curve obstructing a view of the bottom. It is better for the leader to advance alone until he sees that all is clear, and then whistle the others on.

Sec. 7.—The ordinary rules of the road as regards the passing of vehicles, etc., should be rigidly adhered to, as follows:

A—In meeting a vehicle, always pass to the right.

B—In overtaking a vehicle, always pass to the left.

C—The ground in front of a horse should not be taken until the bicyclist is at least ten yards ahead of him.

D—A horse should never be passed on both sides at once.

E—A led horse should always be passed on the same side as the man who is leading it.

F—Before overtaking a rider, it is well to give some sort of a warning. When alone, a short cough will generally suffice. In company-riding, a word to your companion will attract the necessary attention. The mere sound of a human voice is often all that is wanted to prevent a horse from starting at the sudden passage of the noiseless machine.

G—If a horse on meeting a bicycle, shows signs of restiveness, the leader should order a dismount at his discretion (even if he himself has passed the horse), and should invariably do so on any signal or request from the driver or horseman.

H—In company-riding, the leader, on passing any one (whether driving, riding or walking,) should announce that others are following close after, and the rear man should in the same way signify that all have passed.

I—Inattention to these and other rules and courtesies of the road will cause annoyance to the public, and create prejudice against bicycling.

SIGNALS.

Sec. 8.—The following signals will be used when on a run in company, to preserve order and insure against accident:

Fall in—One long whistle.

Mount—One short whistle.

Dismount and Halt—Two short whistles.

Dismount and Walk—Two long whistles.

Form Twos—Two short whistles three times.

Form Single File—Three short well separated whistles.

Extend Line—One short and one long whistle three times.

Close Up Line—One long and one short whistle three times.

Quicken Speed—Three short whistles three times.

Slacken Speed—One long whistle.

Ride at Ease—Two short and one long whistle three times.

Danger—Look out when signaled from front to rear—six or more short whistles; accident when signaled from rear to front—six or more short whistles.


RULES FOR ATHLETIC MEETINGS.

To make this work as complete as possible, we have resolved to insert the best models of rules for athletic meetings of all kinds, founded on those of the N. Y. Athletic Club. This association is the largest in the country and has always been successful in its meetings, which have passed off without a single fiasco on record. Its rules can therefore hardly be unworthy of imitation and have in fact been the model for those of all successful athletic clubs.

These rules we therefore print below. They cover, as will be seen, all sorts of athletic sports which do not need other description.


American Athletic Rules.

MEETINGS.

Officers.—The officers of an athletic meeting shall be: One clerk of the course, with assistants, if necessary; one starter; one judge of walking, with assistants, if necessary; one scorer, with assistants, if necessary; three timekeepers; three judges at the finish; three measurers; one referee.

Clerk of the Course.—He shall record the name of each competitor who shall report to him; shall give him his number for each game in which he is entered, and notify him, five minutes before the start, of every event in which he is engaged. The assistants shall do such portions of his work as he may assign to them.

Starter.—He shall have entire control of competitors at their marks; shall strictly enforce Law 3, and shall be the sole judge of fact as to whether or no any man has gone over his mark. His decision in such cases shall be final and without appeal.

Judge of Walking.—He shall have entire control of competitors during the race; shall strictly enforce Law 8, and his decision as to unfair walking shall be final and without appeal. The assistants shall do such portion of his work as he may assign to them.

Scorer.—He shall record the laps made by each competitor, and call them aloud when tallied, for the information of the contestants. He shall record the order of finishing and the times of the competitors in walking and running races. The assistants shall do such portions of his work as he may assign to them.

Timekeepers.—Each of the three timekeepers shall time every event, and in case of disagreement the average of the three shall be the official time. Time to be taken from the flash of the pistol.

Judges at the Finish.—Two shall stand at one end of the tape, and the third at the other. One shall take the winner, another the second man, and the other the third man; they shall also note the distances between the first three as they finish. In case of disagreement the majority shall decide. Their decisions as to the order in which the men finish shall be final and without appeal.

Measurers.—They shall measure and record each trial of each competitor in all games whose record is one of distance or hight. Their decision as to the performance of each man shall be final and without appeal.

Referee.—He shall, when appealed to, decide all questions whose settlement is not provided for in these rules, and his decision shall be final and without appeal.

Competitors.—Immediately on arriving at the grounds each competitor shall report to the clerk of the course, and receive his number for the game in which he is entered. He shall inform himself of the times at which he must compete, and will report promptly at the start, without waiting to be notified. No competitor allowed to start without his proper number.

Inner Grounds.—No person whatsoever allowed inside the track except the officials and properly accredited representatives of the press. The authorized persons will wear a badge, and intruders will be promptly ejected. Competitors not engaged in the game actually taking place will not be allowed inside or upon the track.

LAWS.

1. Attendants.—No attendants shall accompany a competitor on the scratch or in the race.

2. Starting Signals.—All races (except time handicaps) shall be started by report of pistol fired behind the competitors. A miss fire shall be no start. There shall be no recall after the pistol is fired. Time handicaps shall be started by the word “Go.”

3. Starting.—When the starter receives a signal from the judges at the finish that everything is in readiness he shall direct the competitors to get on their marks. Any competitor starting before the signal shall be put back one yard, for the second offense two yards, and for the third shall be disqualified. He shall be held to have started when any portion of his body touches the ground in front of his mark. Stations count from the inside.

4. Keeping Proper Course.—In all races on a straight track, each competitor shall keep his own position on the course from start to finish.

5. Change of Course.—In all races on other than a straight track, a competitor may change toward the inside whenever he is two steps ahead of the man whose path he crosses.

6. Fouling.—Any competitor shall be disqualified for willfully jostling, running across, or in any way impeding another.

7. Finish.—A thread shall be stretched across the track at the finish, four feet above the ground. It shall not be held by the judges, but be fastened to the finish posts on either side, so that it may always be at right angles to the course and parallel to the ground. The finish line is not this thread, but the line on the ground drawn across the track from post to post and the thread is intended merely to assist the judges in their decision. The men shall be placed in the order in which they cross the finish line.

8. Walking.—The judge shall caution for any unfair walking, and the third caution shall disqualify the offender. On the last lap an unfair walker shall be disqualified without previous caution.

9. Hurdles.—The regular hurdle race shall be 120 yards, over 10 hurdles, each 3ft. 6in. high. The first hurdle shall be placed 15 yards from the scratch, and there shall be 10 yards between each hurdle. There may be (by special announcement) hurdle races of different distances and with different number and length of hurdles.

10. Jumping.—No weights or artificial aid will be allowed in any jumping contest except by special agreement or announcement. When weights are allowed there shall be no restriction as to size, shape, or material.

11. Running High Jump.—The hight of the bar at starting and at each successive elevation, shall be determined by a majority of the qualified competitors. In case of a tie the referee shall decide. Three tries allowed at each hight. Each competitor shall make one attempt in the order of his name on the programme; then those that have failed, if any, shall have a second trial in regular order, and those failing on this trial shall then take their final trial. Displacing the bar and nothing else, counts as a “try.” A competitor may omit his trials at any hight, but if he fails at the next hight he shall not be allowed to go back and try the hight which he omitted.

12. Pole-Leaping.—The rules for this game shall be the same as those of the running high jump.

13. Hitch-and-Kick.—The competitors are allowed unlimited run, but must spring, kick, alight, and hop twice with the same foot. The hight of the object at starting and at each successive elevation, shall be determined by a majority of the qualified competitors. In case of a tie the referee shall decide. Three tries allowed at each hight. Each competitor shall make one attempt in the order of his name on the programme; then those who have failed, if any, shall have a second trial in regular order, and those failing on this trial shall then take their final trial. Hitting the object, and nothing else, counts as a kick, and kicking higher than the object without hitting it is not a kick. Springing from the ground counts as a try. A competitor may omit his trials at any hight, but if he fail at the next hight he shall not be allowed to go back and try the hight which he omitted.

14. Standing High Jump.—The competitors may stand as they please, but must jump from the first spring. The hight of the bar at starting and at each successive elevation, shall be determined by a majority of the qualified competitors. In case of a tie the referee shall decide. Three tries allowed at each hight. Each competitor shall make one attempt in the order of his name on the programme; then those who have failed, if any, shall have a second trial in regular order, and those failing on this trial shall then take their final trial. Displacing the bar and nothing else, counts as a “try.” A competitor may omit his trials at any hight, but if he fail at the next hight he shall not be allowed to go back and try the hight which he omitted.

15. Running Wide Jump.—The competitors shall have unlimited run, but must take off behind the scratch. Stepping any part of the foot over the scratch in an attempt shall be “no jump,” but shall count as a “try.” Each competitor allowed three trials, and the best three men have three more trials each. Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his jumps. The measurement shall be from the scratch line in front of the jumper’s feet to the nearest break of the ground made by any part of his person. The same rules govern running hop step and jump, and all similar games.

16. Standing Wide Jump.—Competitors must jump from the first spring. Stepping any part of the foot over the scratch in an attempt shall be “no jump,” but shall count as a “try.” Each competitor allowed three trials, and the best three men have three more trials each. Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his jumps. The measurement shall be from the scratch line in front of the jumper’s feet to the nearest break of the ground made by any part of his person. The same rules govern standing three jumps, standing hop, step and jump, and all similar games.

17. Putting the Shot.—The shot shall be a solid iron sphere weighing 16 lbs. It shall be put from the shoulder with one hand, from between two parallel lines, 7 ft. apart. Touching the ground outside either line with any part of person, before the shot alights, shall make the attempt “no put,” which counts as a “try.” Each competitor allowed three trials, and the best three men have three more trials each. Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his puts. The measurement shall be from the nearest break of the ground made by the ball, perpendicularly to the scratch line, extended, if necessary, to meet this perpendicular.

18. Throwing the Hammer.—The hammer-head shall be a solid iron sphere, weighing 16 lbs., the handle shall be of hickory wood, and the length of hammer and handle, over all, shall be 3 ft, 6 in. The competitor shall stand at and behind the scratch, facing as he pleases, and throw with either or both hands. Touching the ground in front of the scratch with any portion of the person, before the hammer alights, shall make the attempt “no throw,” which counts as a “try.” Letting go of the hammer in an attempt counts as a “try.” Each competitor allowed three trials, and the best three men have three more trials each. Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his throws. If the head strike first the measurement shall be from the nearest break of the ground made by it. If the handle strikes first, one length of the hammer shall be allowed from the mark made by the end of the handle toward the mark made by the head of the hammer, and the measurement shall be from this point. The measurement shall be to the scratch line half-way between the thrower’s feet.

19. Throwing the Hammer with a Run.—The hammer-head shall be a solid iron sphere, weighing 16 lbs., the handle shall be of hickory wood, and the length of hammer and handle over all shall be 3 ft. 6 in. Unlimited run is allowed, and the competitor may deliver the hammer as he pleases. Letting go of the hammer in an attempt counts as “a try.” Each competitor allowed three trials, and the best three men have three more trials each. Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his throws. If the head strikes first, the measurement shall be from the nearest break of the ground made by it. If the handle strikes first, one length of the hammer shall be allowed from the mark made by the end of the handle, toward the mark made by the head of the hammer, and the measurement shall be from this point. The measurement shall be to the nearest footprint at the delivery. The footprints of the competitors shall be effaced after each throw.

20. Throwing Fifty-six Pound Weight.—This shall be of solid iron, and any shape of weight and handle is allowed, provided the whole weighs 56 lbs. The competitor will stand at and behind the scratch, facing as he pleases, grasping the weight by the handle, and shall throw it with one hand. Touching the ground in front of the scratch with any portion of the person, before the weight alights, shall make the attempt “no throw,” which counts as “a try.” Letting go of the weight in an attempt shall count as “a try.” Each competitor allowed three trials, and the best three men have three more trials each. Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his throws. The measurement shall be from the scratch line (in front of the thrower’s left foot), to the nearest break of the ground made by the weight, exclusive of handle.

21. Tossing the Caber.—The length of the caber to be 16 ft., the diameter at the thick end not more than 8 in., and at the small end not more than 4 in. The caber must be held by the small end, and tossed over so that the small end shall fall and remain beyond the butt. The competitors shall have unlimited run, but must take off behind the scratch. Stepping any part of the foot over the scratch in an attempt shall be “no toss,” but shall count as “a try.” Each competitor allowed three trials, and the best three men have three more trials each. Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his tosses. The measurement shall be from the small end of the caber perpendicularly to the scratch line, extended, if necessary, to meet this perpendicular.

22. Throwing the Ball (LacrosseCricketor Base-ball).—The lacrosse ball shall be thrown from the lacrosse, the cricket and base-ball from the hand. The competitors shall have unlimited run, but must take off behind the scratch. Touching the ground in front of the scratch-line with any part of the person before the ball alights, shall make the attempt “no throw,” which shall count as “a try.” Each competitor allowed three trials, and the best three men have three more trials each. Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his throws. To facilitate the measurement, a line shall be drawn parallel to and 300 ft. in front of the scratch-line. The measurement shall be from the nearest break of the ground made by the ball, perpendicularly to the measuring line, extended, if necessary, to meet this perpendicular.

23. Tug-of-War.—In tug-of-war the following rules will be observed: (1.) The side creases to be 12 ft. from the center crease. (2.) The mark on the rope to be over the center crease when the word “heave” is given, and the team hauling that mark over the crease on its own side to be the winners. (3.) No footing holes to be made before the start. (4.) The contestants to wear socks, slippers, boots or shoes without spikes. (5.) The rope to be 1 1-2 in. in diameter. (6.) Immediately before the contest the captains of all the contesting teams shall draw their numbers. (7.) Not less than five minutes shall be allowed each team between heats. (8.) Captains shall toss for choice of sides before each pull. But if the same two teams pull more than once during the day, they shall change ends at each successive pull. (9.) With two teams, they shall pull best 2 in 3. With three teams, one and two shall pull, then two and three, and three and one. With four teams, one and two shall pull, then three and four, and the winners pull the final. With five teams, first round, one and two, three and four, five has a bye; second round, winner of first heat pulls with five, and the winner of this heat pulls the final with the winner of second heat of first round. With six teams, first round, one and two, three and four, five and six; second round, winner of first and second heats. Winner of this heat pulls the final with winner of third heat, first round. Where more than six teams are entered, the arrangement of trials shall be on the same principle as in the above examples.

24. Bicycling.—When ordered into position for a start the men shall mount their machines, and one assistant for each competitor will hold his machine with its front wheel at the mark; at the starting signal the attendants are allowed to push the machine forward but not to follow it up. Riders must pass each other on the outside, and be a clear length of the bicycle in front before taking the inside; the inside man must allow room on the outside for other competitors to pass. Any competitor infringing this rule will be disqualified. In a race without using the handles, competitors must ride with the arms folded, or the hands and arms otherwise kept quite off the machine. Any competitor touching any part of his machine with his hands or arms will be disqualified. The Laws of Athletes govern all points not above specified.

In case there are any of our readers who think the above rules too long and complicated, we recommend for their use the much simpler and almost equally comprehensive English rules which follow.

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